Recorded in over forty spellings, some being shown below, this is a medieval surname, which is now widespread in most European countries. It was mainly introduced by Crusader Christian knights returning to Europe after theuir many attempts to wrest the Holy Land from the Muslims in ther 12th century. All failed, but as Greece was the base from which most invasions were planned and launched it is not surprising that the name is to be found there. However spelt the surname derives from the Hebrew word "shalom", meaning peace, but as a surname can be either Hebrew or Christian. It is said that Salomon was the popular medieval form , whilst Solomon was the spelling after the issue of the Authorized Version of the Bible in 1619. The surname developed rapidly in the Middle Ages where it was mainly Christian. It was sometimes used as a nickname for a wise man, or for someone who had played the part of King Solomon in the famous miracle plays of the period. The surname spellings include Saloman, Salmond, Sammon and Sammonds (English & Scottish), Saleman (German), Salek (Czech), Salomoni (Italian), Solomonides (Greek), and many more. The very first known recording of the 'surname' in any surviving public record may be that of Solomon of Yorkshire, England, in the famous Domesday Book of 1086. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation, and In England this was sometimes known as the Poll (or Head)Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
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