Recorded in over two hundred and fifty spellings including Dominic, Domineque, Domico, Meco, Meconi, Mico, Micocci, and Micone and found throughout the western world, this famous surname is medieval although its true origins are much earlier. Wherever found the derivation is from the Roman (Latin) name "Dominicus", from "dominus", meaning lord or master. The original name was given considerable impetus by the fame of the Spanish St Dominicus, who founded the Dominican order of monks. Surnames derived from personal names are the oldest surname type, dating from about the 12th century, and in the Christian world are often connected with the twelve Crusades. These were major military expeditions lead by various European kings of which the most famous was Richard, The Lionheart of England, who tried and failed to wrest the Holy Land, and particularly Jerusalem, from the Moslems. As a result of the crusades it became fashionable in Europe to name children of returning soldiers, after biblical characters. The coat of arms most associated with the name has the blazon of a green shield, charged with two golden towers joined by a black chain, and surmounted by a black eagle. It is unclear when the surname was first recorded, but Dominicus de Buketon or Dominicus of Buxton was recorded in England in 1326. This was in the tax register known as "The Feet of fines", and during the reign of King Edward 11nd, 1307 - 1327. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
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