This is a English locational surname from any or all of the six places in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire called Osgodby. Recorded variously as Osgotesbi, Osgotbi and Ansgotebi in the famous Domesday Book of 1086 for the above counties, all places share the same meaning and derivation. That is from the Old Norse male given name Asgautr", a compound of the elements "as", meaning god or good, with the tribal name "Gath," the same as the Olde English "Geatas", and the tribe to which the famous Beowulf belonged, and the Norse suffix "byr", meaning a farm or settlement. Locational surnames were developed when former inhabitants of a place moved to another area, usually to seek work, and were best identified by the name of their birthplace. Regional and dialectal differences subsequently produced variations in the spelling of the name. This is now found as Asgodby, Osgodby, Asgorby, Osgorby, Osgordby, Osgarby, Osgerby, and no doubt others! An interesting early bearer of the name was Adam de Osgodby, the keeper of the Great Seal of England in the reigns of King Edward 1st (1272 - 1307 and his son Edward 11nd 1307 - 1327. On March 21st 1569, Izabell Osgerbe, was christened at Barnoldby le Beck, Lincolnshire, and on July 8th 1582, Sybbell Osgerby and Henry Raper were married at Pickhill with Roxby, Yorkshire. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hugh de Osgoteby. This was dated 1273, in the "Hundred Rolls of Yorkshire", during the reign of King Edward 1st, known as "The Hammer of the Scots". Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
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