This very interesting surname is of German origins. It may be locational from a village of the same name in the Province of Rheinland, or it may be ornamental. The Germans and the Swedes both adopted a system in the 18th century of adopting surnames of an 'ornamental' nature, in effect to create a pleasurable sound and abstract meaning. There are many examples which commence with 'ros(e)' (the rose), to which was added a suffix such as 'garten' or 'berg' etc. In this case the name translates as 'The rose camp' but the literal meaning is more likely to be 'the place of semi-permanent dwellings amongst the roses', perhaps signifying a 'summer' camp for the shepherds in ancient times.The name is also recorded in the Netherlands as 'Roscam', and this would seem to be again of German origins. The coat of arms has the blazon of a gold field charged with three red stirrups. Early recordings (all from Rheinland, which seems to have been the epicentre of the name) include Theodorus Roscamp, son of Johannis and Magdalenae (nee Hoverath), christened at Keyenberg, on December 15th 1743, and Margaretha Roscamp, who married Josephus Nahman at Borschemich on April 15th 1780. A later recording is that of Wilhelm Roscamp who married Maria Deller at Suechtelen, on September 12th 1873. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Helena Roscamps, which was dated January 1st 1737, married Henricus Teberah at Heinsberg, Rheinland, during the reign of King George 11 of Hanover and England, 1727 - 1760. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
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